The Galactic Republic, also known as the First Galactic Republic and later as the Old Republic and Ancient Republic, was the primary government of the Galaxy prior to the rise of the Galactic Empire, New Republic and Galactic Alliance. Founded over 25,000 years before the rise of the Galactic Empire, the Republic was a democracy headed on Coruscant under the leadership of the Galactic Senate and Supreme Chancellor. After numberous wars with the Sith, the Republic reorganized itself and disbanded the military for over 900 years until the start of the Clone Wars led to the creation of the Grand Army of the Republic. During the Republic's final years, it was secretly placed under Sith control when Supreme Chancellor Palpatine, secretly Darth Sidious, was elected. Sidious manipulated the Republic's war with the Confederacy of Independent Systems until he had absolute power, in which he then betrayed the Jedi and had them wiped out by issuing executive Order 66 to the Clone Troopers of the GAR. Palpatine then turned the Republic into the Galactic Empire in front of a willing senate.

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